Cleveland State University

Economic Development

Research Topics

Economic Development

White, Sammis B., Richard Bingham, and Edward W. Hill, Financing economic development in the 21st century (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2003).

ABSTRACT
None Available


Hill, Edward W. and Jeremy Nowak, Policies to uncover the competitive advantages of America's distressed cities. In Iain Begg (ed.) Urban competitiveness (Manchester, UK: Public Policy Press, 2002).

ABSTRACT
This chapter is not about public policies directed at poverty alleviation: it is about re-establishing the competitive viability of distressed central cities. It discusses public policies that reconnect fiscally distressed cities to their regional economies through the fundamentals of economic development: land, labor and capital. The reason for this focus is that cities can help relieve the poverty of their residents only if they foster economic opportunity. The problem with too many central cities and fiscally distressed older (formerly) industrial and residential suburbs in the United States is that they have institutional structures, redistributive practices and political cultures that are more appropriate to the market positions they had in the 1940s and 1950s when most business transactions had to be completed within their municipal boundaries (Peterson 1981).


Hill, Edward W., Ohio's competitive advantage: Manufacturing productivity (Cleveland: Levin College of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University, 2001).

PREVIEW
Successful economic development is constructed from strength and achievement, not conjured from weakness and entitlement. To sustain the state's economic base, Ohio must have integrated economic and technology policies that build from existing areas of economic strength and reward competitive achievement. The demonstrated strength of this state's economy is manufacturing, and manufacturing's greatest achievement has been implementing a stream of process innovations and capital deepening, resulting in steady improvements in productivity.
Investing in economic strength means that Ohio's manufacturers need to continue applying process innovations to their production activities; building on achievement means working with the public sector (including higher education) to stimulate product innovation and to encourage capital formation that will enhance productivity. At the same time, the production and distribution functions of the overall manufacturing production process serve as an economic link between the strong economic core of the state, which is located along the suburban exit ramps of the state's highway system, and its lagging areas. The foundation of Ohio's economy is manufacturing productivity, which is at the heart of income and wealth building in the state of Ohio.


Hill, Edward W. and Jeremy Nowak, Nothing left to lose: Radical policy changes are required to uncover the competitive advantages of America's distressed cities, The Brookings Review Summer 2000): 23-26. *** Portions of this article were reprinted as: Cities that have forgotten their regional economies: Strategies for America's distressed cities, Greater Philadelphia Regional Review, with Jeremy Nowak (Fall 2000): 8-11 and Wanted: A Camden exit strategy, Philadelphia Inquirer.

PREVIEW
When we first started work on this article, we called it "Cities Forgotten by Their Regional Economies." But as we reflected more on the competitive position of distressed central cities, we realized that the title was wrong. Cities have not been forgotten by their regional economies; rather, all too often, the opposite has happened. Distressed central cities have not, or perhaps cannot, react to changes in their current competitive positions within their regional economies.
The urban employment renaissance of the 1990s has been largely confined to a few large central cities, bypassing many others and avoiding scores of formerly industrial small to mid-sized central cities. Our challenge is to understand why distressed central cities such as Camden, New Jersey, or Detroit, Michigan?have had trouble adjusting to competitive realities and then to try to devise public policies that allow them to uncover their competitive advantages.


Hill, Ned, Chris Warren, Richard Shatten, and Norman Krumholz, Cleveland: Four perspectives on America's 'comeback city': A proceeding of the crisis cities symposium, Projections (Spring 2000) 1: 80-95***

ABSTRACT
Cleveland, Ohio, is an industrial city of about 500,000 that became a national symbol of urban decline in the 1970's. Since then Cleveland has remade both its damaged image and its physical fabric through an ambitious public-private partnership that has returned the city to the headlines as America's 'Comeback CityE Projects like the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Jacobs Field have set a new standard for urban revitalization. In Spring 1999, as part of the Crisis Cities symposium, MIT invited four of the key players in Cleveland's renewal story to discuss how the renewal process came about, where it has succeeded or fallen short, and to project the prospects for the future revitalization of Cleveland.


Hill, Edward W. and John F. Brennan, A methodology for identifying the drivers of industrial clusters: The foundation of regional competitive advantage, Economic Development Quarterly 14(1) (February 2000): 65-96. * In 2005 and 2006 ranked fourth in EDQ's citation list.

ABSTRACT
This article represents a theoretically based method for identifying the clusters of industries in which a region has a competitive advantage. The method combines cluster analysis with discriminant analysis, using variables derived from economic base theory and measures of productivity, to identify the industries in which a region has its greatest competitive advantage. These industries are called driver industries because they drive the region's economy. The driver industries are linked to supplier and customer industries with information from a region-specific input-output model to form industry clusters. After introductory comments about cluster-based approaches to understanding regional economies, the authors present an overview of their method and the variables used. They then apply this method to the Cleveland-Akron Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Brennan, John F. and Edward W. Hill, Where are the jobs? Cities, suburbs, and the competition for employment, November, 1999 Survey Series.

ABSTRACT
Declining crime statistics, falling unemployment rates, balanced municipal budgets, and resurgence in downtown living have cities across the country claiming that they are in the midst of a renaissance. Indeed, the economic boom of the mid-1990s has helped most cities stem the tide of decline, but new date reveal that it has not enabled them to beat their suburbs in the competition for new jobs. This paper looks at data from 92 metropolitan regions to determine where job growth is happening, and reveals which cities are losing their share of metropolitan area jobs, and which cities are outpacing their suburbs in job growth.


Hill, Edward W., The Future of Northeast Ohio's Airports: Framing the Coming Debate (Cleveland: The Urban Center, October 14, 1997).

ABSTRACT
None available.


Bingham, Richard D. and Edward W. Hill, Global perspectives on economic development: Government and enterprise finance (New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, 1997).

ABSTRACT
None available.


Hill, Edward W., Bennett Harrison and Marcus S. Weiss, Rethinking National Economic Development Policy, Overview/Summary, in Rethinking National Economic Development Policy (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration, 1997).
Also distributed as a working paper of the Urban Center, Cleveland State University.

ABSTRACT
This paper is an overview and summary of the findings and recommendations from twelve papers written by a research team assembled by the Economic Development Assistance Consortium. The authors did not try to find either a unified line of argument or a consistent set of policy recommendations. Instead, ten of the papers were written in four primary areas: policy and principles, rural development, community development, and science and technology policy. Two of the papers looked at independent themes that were not easily categorized: One examined the federal role in mitigating the impact of military base closings; the other examined the impact of tight metropolitan labor markets on spatial income disparities between central cities and their suburbs. In this paper we summarize these findings.


Hill, Edward W., The Cleveland economy: A case study of economic restructuring. In W. Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz and David Perry (eds.) Cleveland: A metropolitan reader (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1995): 53-86. Parts of this chapter have been subsequently reprinted as: A city built on work, Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 7, 1997 and Bingham et al., Beyond edge cities (NY: Garland Publishing, 1997) pp.56-61.

ABSTRACT
In 1978 everything seemed to come apart in Cleveland: politically, the mayor survived a voter recall by 236 votes; fiscally, Cleveland was the first city to suffer a bond default since the Great Depression; and ecologically, Lake Erie was declared dead. Coterminous with these disasters, the economy of Greater Cleveland experienced an irreparable secular erosion of its durable goods base, starting in the third quarter of 1979 and continuing until the first quarter of 1983, signaling the end of the old economic order. This essay discusses Cleveland's shift from the old to a new order economy. A brief description of the emergence of the industrial old order economy is followed by an analysis of the new economic structure. This analysis suggests that the new economic structure involves more than the numbers of jobs lost or changed. It is also evident in changes in the incidence of poverty, the relative costs of housing, and the occupational characteristics of the residential labor force.


Wolman, Harold L., Royce Hanson, Marie Howland, Edward W. Hill, and Larry Ledebur, National urban economic development policy, Journal of Urban Affairs 14(3/4) (September 1992): 217-238. ***

ABSTRACT
National development policy must address uneven economic performance, disparities in unemployment rates, and income inequities between city and suburban residents and between minority groups and whites. The goals of such a policy are improved economic performance and the reduction of intrametropolitan disparities in the economic well-being of residents. Four policy approaches are identified: productivity enhancing policies, cost reduction subsidies, demand-side policies, and institutional policy. The authors argue that the most effective policy solutions will be drawn from productivity enhancing and institutional policies, especially improving the education and training of the labor force. They suggest that productivity enhancing education and human resource policies are more important to urban economic development than traditional cost reduction subsidies such as tax concessions or enterprise zones. They recommend a variety of institutional policies to provide a more level playing field and reduce nonproductive competition among state and local governments, to improve labor market efficiency, particularly within metropolitan areas, and to reduce metropolitan political fragmentation as a means of reducing disparities within metropolitan areas.


Hill, Edward W. and Nell Ann Shelley, An overview of economic development finance. In Richard D. Bingham, Edward W. Hill and Sammis White (eds.) Financing economic development: An institutional response (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1990): 13 28.

ABSTRACT
The central question researchers and practitioners should be asking about economic development finance is: Why is the public investing in private sector activities? Macroeconomists would be hard pressed to justify public provision of credit and equity to the private sector, believing the commonly held assumption that private capital markets are close to perfect (Borts 1971; Straszheim 1971). In fact, the assumption is so well ingrained that most regional econometric models assume that an infinitely elastic supply of funds is available at the prevailing interest rate (Bolton 1985). Certainly deregulation of financial markets and the movement toward national commercial banking have acted to integrate further the nation's credit markets. Why, then, has the United States witnessed an explosion of public sector institutional innovation in the credit market? To understand better this question, and economic development finance in general, this chapter briefly reviews the debt instruments available in the U.S. capital market and the four dimensions of investment risk. Investments present different combinations of benefits and problems to investors and lenders; in effect, investors make trade-offs among each of the four dimensions of risk and then between risk and the rate of return from the investment. To reduce risk, the states have devised a number of institutions affecting the credit market. These innovations are highlighted in the second section. The concluding portion of the chapter contains a political theory of this institutional development.


Hill, Edward W., Cleveland, Ohio: Manufacturing matters; services are strengthened, but earnings erode. In Richard D. Bingham and Randall W. Eberts (eds.) Economic restructuring of the American Midwest (Boston, MA: Kluwer, 1990): 103-140.

PREVIEW
A period of unrivaled industrial entrepreneurism from 1870 to the late 1920s laid the economic foundation for the old-order Cleveland. Steel, iron ore, coal, shipping, and oil built the city, and it evolved into a durable goods economy that included automotive production, lighting, electrical motors, and chemicals, paint, and coatings.
Things began to change in the mid 1970s. By 1979 - a watershed year - the secular erosion of the area's durable goods base became evident as the city and its surrounding area began an abrupt economic restructuring.


Bingham, Richard D., Edward W. Hill, and Sammis B. White, Financing Economic Development: An institutional response (Newbury Park CA: Sage Publications, 1990). In Ukrainian by Lilopys Publishing House, Lviv, Ukraine 2003.

ABSTRACT
None Available


Hill, Edward W. and Thomas Bier, Economic restructuring: Earnings, occupations and housing values in Cleveland, Economic Development Quarterly (May 1989) 3(2): 123 144. * Reprinted in Approaches to Economic Development: Readings from Economic Development Quarterly, edited by John Blair and Laura Reese (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications) pp.130-148.

ABSTRACT
The impact of economic restructuring in Cleveland was felt by more than those who either lost or changed jobs. The positive and negative effects of restructuring spilled into neighborhoods where workers live, resulting in marked changes in the incidence of poverty and the relative cost of housing. We present a model of the connection between the regional economy and neighborhoods and present data that highlights aspects of that model. We trace the impact of restructuring from 1979 to 1987 through quarterly changes in the distribution of earnings to indicators of neighborhood well being, poverty, and housing values. We hypothesize that the transmission mechanism between the workplace and neighborhood is the occupational characteristics of the residential work force. The analysis of changes in the earnings distribution is done for Cleveland's PMSA, and the remainder of the article uses census tract data.


Hill, Edward W., Changing Educational Objectives for a Changing National Economy: Employability and Skills Development in the Classroom, in Gary Sands (ed.) Educating Youth in a Changing Economy (Detroit: Center for Urban Studies, Wayne State University, 1989).

PREVIEW
Students, parents, employers and educators are grappling with the future. Politicians and academic researchers are quickly following their lead, sensing that a constituency is developing for their services. Is this a new phenomenon? No, it is another cycle of concern over the course of public education, a cycle which has been repeated many times over the past 100 years.[l]
Despite the great sound and fury of the current debate over public education, we have yet to see a clearly articulated set of questions. In fact, each special interest group appears to have its own. The business community -and the Reagan Administration -is harping on the perceived lack of quality of secondary education. Minority parents in many inner-city communities are concerned about violence, gang activity, and the real possibility of resegregation of urban schools. Parents, almost universally, are concerned about teenage pregnancy and chemical abuse. Advocates for the poor look to the schools as vehicles for feeding children and providing social services.


Hill, Edward W., Differences in the dependency rate among the states in 1985: Implications for development and labor market policy, Economic Development Quarterly (August 1988) 2(3):217 236.*

ABSTRACT
The concept of the dependency rate (DR), introduced in this article, is used to analyze aggregate economic dependence in the states, using annual data for 1985. The DR is a measure of the portion of a state's population that is supported, directly or indirectly, by its working population. The DR is related to the unemployment rate (UR), but the measures are conceptually and statistically distinct. The DR is first used to rank order the states, and that rank order is compared to one based on the UR. Significant differences are demonstrated in the two sets of rank orders, with implications for intergovernmental transfers that are designed to ameliorate aggregate economic distress. A regression model of the DR in the 50 states is constructed. The results from the model are used to inform economic and labor market policies in the states. The states are divided into five types of labor markets: depressed, distressed, slack, tight, and full, based on their URs and the results from the statistical model.


Harrison, Bennett and Edward W. Hill, The changing structure of jobs in older and younger cities. In Benjamin Chinitz (ed.) Central city economic development (Cambridge, MA: Abt Books, 1979).

ABSTRACT
None Available


* article is peer reviewed
** article is reviewed by editorial board
*** article is invited

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e.hill@csuohio.edu


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